World Fitness Blog : Leading Global Bloggers

December 31, 2022

10 top tips to help fight a hangover

Filed under: Fitness — Tags: — admin @ 8:12 pm

Relaxing with drinks and friends is fun at the time – until you wake up the next morning with nausea and a major headache.

Not to worry, because while you will suffer today, there are a couple of ways you can make things tolerable.

One of the best hangover cure tips is to try and drink a glass of water for every alcoholic drink you consumed. While there are plenty of myths about hangover cure foods, water is probably the most effective thing you can consume when you have a hangover.

This is because the largest symptom of a hangover is intense dehydration – primarily because the ethanol in that Champagne causes you to urinate out a lot of potassium, narrowing your blood vessels and causing an almighty headache.


New Year, New You: Amazon Halo View fitness trackers are down to $50 — up to 40% off – Yahoo Lifestyle Australia

Filed under: Fitness — admin @ 6:18 pm

What comes after Christmas? New Years! And New Year’s resolutions, which makes this Amazon fitness tracker a fantastic gift for the fitness buff in your life. In an ideal world, you’d be the picture of health: eight hours of restorative sleep every night, a morning meditation routine, a personalized exercise regimen and a daily menu of balanced meals. But this is real life. And this is the holiday season, which always amplifies the challenges of everyday life. Amazon’s Halo View fitness trackers essentially take on the role of doctor, nurse, personal trainer, chef, life coach and spiritual guru, monitoring everything from your heart rate to your weight fluctuations to your sleep patterns. And — surprise! — you can get one for $50 right now.

So whether you want to get one to improve your own routine or gift it for the holidays (and they make great gifts!), now’s the time to snap up a Halo.

Halo Views truly represent the best of what fitness trackers have to offer. The handy gizmo tracks your physical activity, sleep quantity and quality, blood oxygen levels, BMI (the tracker scans your body to measure it!) and much more to record priceless data. It all appears in a health summary you can review at any time on a full-color OLED display — the real selling point — on the face of the band, which comes in lavender, green or black.

This next-level device truly has your back. It offers live workout tracking, sends important reminders for sticking to your health goals or simply encourages you to move your butt, whether that means taking 10,000 steps or swimming 10 laps. It’s totally customizable, of course. And it even lets you know if a text message has come through while you’re otherwise engaged.

Users need a Halo membership to use their fitness tracker — that’s where they’ll see their health overview and be introduced to a whole suite of tools and information. The good news is when you nab this Halo View, you get an all-access Halo membership free of charge for an entire year. After that, it’s just $4 a month.

Keep tabs on your health with Halo fitness trackers. (Photos: Amazon)

A Halo membership lets you view all your personal stats. It offers nutrition programs, recipes, hundreds of on-demand workouts, mindfulness sessions, daily meditations, and voice analysis to help you communicate better…it’s hard to think of what this thing can’t help with. You can even shower and swim with it up to 50 meters — so unless you plan on scuba diving, you’re good to go!

And because it’s an Amazon product, Halo View connects to Alexa and seamlessly integrates into your smart-home setup. Add battery power to the list of conveniences, too: It works for seven days on a full charge, which only takes two hours to achieve.

Halo Band

You may have heard about the Halo Band; it’s the View’s 2020 predecessor and a top-seller in its own right. A major difference is that it doesn’t have a digital display, so it doesn’t send you alerts and reminders. You have to log into your Halo membership to see your health overview and unlock a suite of tools and info.

Yes, the same Halo membership works with the chic silver, black or blush/rose gold Band, and when you buy this unassuming fitness tracker you get a free six-month membership! It’s just $4 a month going forward to gain access to popular apps like Headspace and Relax Melodies for meditation, Apativ and OrangeTheory for sweat sessions or Weight Watchers Reimagined for weight loss and nutrition.

And yep, this one’s also waterproof and Alexa-enabled. Shoppers have had over a year to test out the Halo Band, and it’s earned more than 11,000 five-star reviews — fans say these devices outpace the competition.

“There are no screens, so it’s not distracting. I can wear it all day and night with no issues,” wrote an astute fan. “It helps track my sleep in no way my Apple Watch or FitBit can. The tone function is what blew me away. I had no idea how I sound when I talk, and I love that it can pick up on that and guide me on the ways I sound.”

“The sleep monitoring is more informative and accurate than Apple Watch or Fitbit. Halo Band’s time readings are spot-on night after night — I know because I’ve been monitoring and comparing,” wrote another shopper.

Check out the other color options below. And oh yeah: Order now, and you (or your lucky giftee) will have it in time for Christmas.

  • Amazon Amazon Halo Band — Blush + Rose Gold

    $40$70Save $30

  • Amazon Amazon Halo Band — Black + Onyx

    $40$70Save $30

If you have Amazon Prime, you’ll get free shipping, of course. Not yet a member? No problem. You can sign up for your free 30-day trial here. (And by the way, those without Prime still get free shipping on orders of $25 or more.)

The reviews quoted above reflect the most recent versions at the time of publication.

Looking for more great Amazon tech deals? Check these out:

Headphones and earbuds

  • Bose QuietComfort 45 Bluetooth Wireless Noise Cancelling Headphones

    $249$329Save $80

  • Beats Studio Buds

    $100$150Save $50

  • Tozo T6 True Wireless Bluetooth Earbuds

    $20$50Save $30

  • Sony WH-CH510 Wireless Bluetooth On-Ear Headphones

    $38$60Save $22

Tablets and tech

  • Lenovo 2022 Newest Ideapad 3 Laptop

    $377$959Save $582

  • Majority Bowfell Small Sound Bar for TV


    Save $11 with coupon

  • Tile Sticker (2022) Small Bluetooth Tracker


  • Amazon Fire HD 8 tablet

    $75$120Save $45


  • Insignia 32-inch Class F20 Series Smart HD Fire TV


  • Hisense 50-inch U6 Series Quantum Dot QLED 4K Smart Fire TV

    $360$530Save $170

  • TCL 32-inch Class 3-Series HD LED Smart Roku TV

    $133$230Save $97

  • Sony 65-inch 4K X80K Series Smart Google TV

    $698$1,000Save $302


December 30, 2022

How to Keep Your New Year’s Resolutions in 2023

Filed under: Fitness — Tags: — admin @ 3:59 pm

Prepare to Execute

Here’s a little New Year’s trivia before jumping into our next part. Who do scholars credit with being the first to adopt the tradition of making annual resolutions?

A.) Romans
B.) Babylonians
C.) Assyrians

If you said the Romans, you are…wrong. The correct answer is the Babylonians, an ancient culture that existed in Mesopotamia from 1894 BC to 539 BC. The tradition dates back four millennia to Akitu, a 12-day festival in mid-March celebrating the spring barley harvest.

Let’s get back to helping you make good on your 2023 New Year’s resolution. After setting, defining, and writing down your short- and long-term goals, it’s time to move on to the third and fourth steps.

3. Prepare

Many confuse planning and preparation, some even use the terms interchangeably, but they’re far from the same. While you can plan on baking an excellent apple pie, if you don’t buy the right ingredients, preheat the oven, and follow the recipe, you’ll fail. Let’s use our weight-loss goal as an example. Preparation may mean getting what you need to cook healthy meals, buying running shoes, and joining a gym. No matter how much you plan, you must start preparing at some point. Together, planning and preparation will get you ready for the final step.

4. Execute

Our new book, The Everyday Warrior, lays out a practical framework for overcoming obstacles and achieving your goals. This brings us to the final step of following through on your New Year’s resolution. In the military, we describe this step as having a bias for action. In the book, we say, “Get shit done, make shit happen, and do it all again tomorrow.” These are just different ways of saying that after you’ve planned and prepared, it’s time to execute.


Top health and fitness trends that will carry through into 202 – Sporting News

Filed under: Fitness — admin @ 7:13 am

From the growing wearable tech market to a shift in how plant-based dieters get their daily servings of vegetables, we take a look at some of the top health and fitness trends in 2022 and how they’ll evolve in the new year.

Wearable fitness tech

Apple Watch Ultra. Photo: Apple

Apple Watch Ultra. Photo: Apple

Wearable gadgets that track everything from sleep patterns to the minutes of mindfulness you clock in on a particular day have become essential for fitness seekers. Brands like Apple, Garmin and Oura have really stepped up the ante in the past year, launching new products with enhanced capabilities for tracking various health markers and aiding extreme adventures, as well as designs that combine fashion with function. 

Apple’s new Apple Watch Ultra brought new features to the wearable scene with its dive and enhanced GPS functions that put previously complex and intricate measurement and calculation instruments at users’ fingertips. The brand also introduced female-centric wrist temperature tracking, enhancing the Apple Watch Series 8’s cycle-tracking capabilities. 

Apple’s health-conscious functions extend beyond the sports world- functions like Fall Detection and Crash Detection can save lives and assist with emergencies.

Smart ring brand Oura launched fashion-forward versions of its wearable in collaboration with Gucci, offering the same sleep and fitness tracking capabilities with the fashion house’s branding. 

As fitness becomes a greater priority for most in the post-pandemic world, a desire to understand one’s health and how to improve it will only grow. Worth US$121.7 billion in 2021 and projected to surpass US$ 390 billion by 2030, there are no signs of stopping the wearable market as the industry continues to develop better ways to measure health and encourage exercise.

Whole foods plant-based diets

Plant-based diet. Photo: Shutterstock


There’s no denying vegetables are good for you. But technology has changed how we get our daily servings of fruits and veggies. Plant-based meats were all the rage in 2021 and became one of the biggest disruptors in the health and wellness industry. It became an alternative for those who want to embrace a plant-based diet but are unwilling to give up the familiar taste of animal proteins. 

However, 2022 proved to be a struggle for the plant-based meat industry as interest in veggie nuggets, burgers and items that mimic animal protein weans wears off. Industry studies show the consumption of plant-based meats has dropped while the sales of animal protein have gone up as much as nine per cent in the US.

That’s not to say the plant-based diet is dropping off the map. Instead, people are becoming more conscious of the additives in processed plant-based meats and instead turning to whole foods to complement their plant-based diet. 

Solo workouts at home and in the metaverse

Weight machine, Shutterstock


Many people invested in at-home gym equipment and have grown accustomed to the convenience of working out at home. One of the main drawbacks of working out at home is the isolation and lack of interaction with friends, trainers and other gym-goers. A number of apps and equipment brands have come to market in hopes of bringing the interactive aspect to solo workouts. 

Digital weight maker Vitruvian has taken the need for a spotter out of the equation with its digital weight system, while the likes of Apple and Pelaton have created extensive series of classes with top trainers to bring the studio workout experience home. 

And with brands engaging consumers in the metaverse, such as Nike, Adidas and Under Armour outfitting avatars, to fitness programmes that provide curated workouts, there will no doubt be a more robust community to support those who work out solo at home and in the digital world.

Also see: Your favourite snack might now be unhealthy, according to FDA rule change


December 29, 2022

Adrien Brody Reflects on ‘Riding the Chaos’

Filed under: Fitness — Tags: — admin @ 11:10 pm

From HBO’s Winning Time to his next Wes Anderson role, Adrien Brody is generating as much unique buzz these days as an ’80s chainsaw.

Real Quick

Your real basketball team?

I’m a New Yorker. But I really do like the Lakers as well.

Funniest actor you’ve shared a scene with?

Owen Wilson.

I’d starve before eating this.


Painting you’d like to own?

The Kiss by Gustav Klimt.

Men’s Journal: Winning Time on HBO, the quirky comedy See How They Run, the Marilyn Monroe drama Blonde… Was 2022 as nonstop as it looked?

Adrien Brody: I love juggling. And when it rains it pours. You learn this as an actor—mustering up the discipline to ride the chaos and busy times between those droughts.

Were there stunt doubles for that classic fight scene in See How They Run? The one with [spoiler alert] the gigantic cake.

That was really us. Slipping and sliding on a marble floor in dress shoes—with cake. It was interesting. And painful.

Your portrayal of Arthur Miller in Blonde has a real vulnerability. How did you approach playing America’s most famous playwright?

By benefiting from a great script and director Andrew Dominik’s instincts—but also honoring a real person who’s far more complex than what may be on a page. I fought for retaining some of those sensitivities.

What comes more naturally to you, comedy or drama?

Hard to say—at least without limiting people’s perception of what you’re capable of doing. Wes Anderson was the first one to really get me in a lighter film that people actually saw. So comedy is definitely in the wheelhouse.

Asteroid City will be your sixth Wes Anderson film. What do you love about working with him?

The shorthand. At this point, I know what Wes gravitates to—and I also know what I may want to try in his films.

What was your favorite aspect of L.A. Lakers coach Pat Riley’s character in Winning Time?

Playing him was a reminder of our preconceptions about iconic figures—about their imagined prowess or innate confidence from the get-go, right? But that’s not necessarily true. That’s what was so fascinating in portraying Riley. The indecision and insecurities he had to overcome to become this legendary coach.

In one episode, you carve up your home office with a chainsaw. As fun as it looks?

You’d be surprised how therapeutic it can be to take a chainsaw to a building in character. The one we used prop from the ’80s. Trying stroke started on a roof in the blazing heat was a hell of a workout.

Great TV and films are becoming less distinguishable for viewers. Is that good or bad?

Both. It’s a blessing that there are more opportunities for creative people and content for audiences. The dilemma is that it has cannibalized the independent film business. That’s a loss for everyone.

What’s something on your to-do list?

I’d really like to do a Western at some point. There are those elements in some of my own written works, like Clean. That was about a man being pushed by oppressive forces and having to stand up for what’s right. I’d like to do a love story too. Something with depth and sensitivity. I don’t think I’ve seen one of those that’s moved me in a while.

For access to exclusive gear videos, celebrity interviews, and more, subscribe on YouTube!


Shaun White Is Entering a New Era

Filed under: Fitness — Tags: — admin @ 10:09 pm

I still train like I did when I was competing. I talked to a lot of other older athletes when I was deciding to retire, and the one thing they all said was, “Don’t stop working out.” Those gym sessions are going to stay a way of life.

Pick Your Battles

One of the best practices I learned early was self-preservation. I was attempting gnarly tricks as a teenager, and one of the older pros told me to pick my battles. It was a lesson I also learned when I tried to return from my 2004 meniscus injury too early and got a bone bruise on one of my first jumps. I had to stay off the mountain for another three months thanks to that decision, and it was one that stuck with me. I stopped focusing on what sponsors were in the crowd or what cameras were pointed in my direction, and instead focused on whether or not it was a good choice for me.

There have been a number of times I’ve had to walk away from events. For example, when I qualified for the Olympic team for slopestyle. I knew there would be backlash. There were people who commented online or on TV, but in the end, it wasn’t going to be them in a wheelchair if something went wrong. There’s a stereotype of snowboarders and other extreme athletes as being crazy daredevils who take too many risks. I’m the opposite. Everything in my career and beyond has been calculated.

Retain Rituals

I’ve traveled a lot and have learned the importance of rituals on the road—especially at the Olympics on those stressful nights before competition. I got in the habit of bringing my own pillow, and when an event was particularly important, I flew my mattress across the world as well. I have a sound machine that plays rain forest noises that help bring me down. I got in the habit of taking cold-water plunges at the end of the day after training or competing. If there’s a lake nearby, I’ll jump into it, or if the hotel I’m staying at has a bathtub I’ll fill it with ice from the machine. I’ve also learned the value of long soaks in a hot bath with Epsom salt.


The M&F 2023 New Year Workout Program – Muscle & Fitness

Filed under: Fitness — admin @ 6:38 pm

Many lifters, beginners or otherwise, hit the gym with no plan that’s why we’ve created this New Year Workout Program—to help create a foolproof plan to get you started.

Besides losing a bit of the holiday flab and seeing muscles they haven’t seen in a while, some will begin their workout journey by aimlessly wandering around and imitating other people’s workouts or sometimes randomly being performing some unique exercises they’ve seen on Instagram.

Some realize it is more challenging than the video they watched—the precursor to many workout fail videos you’ll find on YouTube. So, please read this to avoid being one of them, and instead build the body you want and deserve with the 2023 New Year Workout Program. Here’s the thing many beginner lifters (and some experienced lifters) miss when it comes to getting stronger, building muscle, or losing fat.

Focus on the Basics in this 2023 New Year Workout Program

The basics have worked since Milo picked up a bull every day to get stronger. But the basics don’t sell, consistency doesn’t sell, and progressive overload doesn’t sell well—complicated training and nutrition plans with all the bells and whistles do.

Starting with the basics is where it is at before you get to the complicated training plans. Don’t believe me? Dr. Allan Bacon, Ph.D., an experienced online physique and nutrition coach, thinks you should keep the basics as the main routine.

“The main things to focus on for a beginner are mastering the basics, building a foundation of strength, and establishing a consistent training routine that will allow long-term progress.”

Progress is always the name of the gym game, and the lack of it is why people, particularly beginners, quit. Here we’ll dive into creating a complete workout program to keep you

progressing and balancing your strength and cardio when you haven’t the cash to hire a personal trainer. Let’s dive in.

What are the Basics For the 2023 New Year Workout Program

Well, one was described above, carrying heavy stuff — aka carries. Carries and other movements that are part of your daily activities are fundamental human movements.

What is meant by fundamental human movement? These daily movements are practiced since birth and should play a starring role in your routine. And they are:

  • Sitting down and getting up—also known as squats.
  • Bending over to pick something up—aka hinging
  • Shutting a heavy door behind you—aka pulling
  • Closing the fridge door in front of you—aka pushing
  • Walking, running, lunging, carrying groceries, or climbing stairs: carries and locomotion
  • These classifications differ from coach to coach, but it all means the same thing to you. Here are some resistance training examples of fundamental human movements.
  • Squats: Bodyweight, goblet squats, split squats, Barbell squats
  • Hinges: Bodyweight hip extensions, RDLs, deadlift variations, and hip thrusts
  • Pushing: Pushups, dumbbell and barbell bench presses, shoulder presses, and cable presses
  • Pulling: Chinups, pullups, seated rows, and dumbbell rows
  • Locomotion: Carry variations, stepups, lunges, running (and walking) According to Bacon, many variations within the realm of human movements do similar things, which is excellent for you because it gives you choices.

“There are many ways to reach physique and performance goals, which means there is much variation in how an effective program can look. This is a positive because it means you can find what works for you and what you enjoy. You don’t have to train in a way you find unenjoyable or boring.”

That’s important because the second most significant reason for discontinuing exercise is that you find it boring and not fun. Don’t like barbell squats because they hurt your knees? Substitute goblet squats in, and you are good to go.

How To Approach Sets, Reps, and Other Stuff

Bacon says three to four sets of 8-12 reps should constitute the base of most beginner strength and lean muscle routines. Its moderate volume and weight allow people to challenge themselves without overdoing volume or causing them to handle weights they aren’t ready for. Plus, keeping the program to 4-6 exercises per training session is a reliable method to prevent excessive DOMS or overuse injuries.

Many beginners need help with consistency, but Bacon has a simple mindset switch to help.

“Habit building takes time, and people often have to force themselves to do it until it becomes second nature,” he says. “It is critical to view it as something you choose to do or get to do. Being healthy is a privilege, not an obligation. This mindset shift can make all the difference.”

It’s OK to miss one workout, but try not to miss it twice. Two skipped workouts could be the sad start of sending you back on the slippery slope to failure.

What To Do About Cardio

Cardiovascular exercise’s health and performance benefits are widely known, and there is no need to rehash them. Cardio is important; consider it the cherry on top of your strength training routine. With lots of choices for cardio, consider these three factors before choosing your mode of choice.

  • Cardio mode is unimportant: There’s always speculation about which cardio mode is better. Is the rowing machine better than the bike? Is the treadmill better than the elliptical? But from a health standpoint, the cardio mode is not important because they all have the same heart health benefits. Choose the one you’ll do regularly, not one that burns the most calories. Make it fun: Michelle Segar, the author of “No Sweat,” believes enjoyment is the best motivator for exercise. “Logic doesn’t motivate us; emotions do,” says Segar. People who exercise for enjoyment stick with it more than those who do it for medical reasons. But I hate cardio; I hear you cry out. Guess what, me too, but we all know it’s good for us, like bad-tasting medicine. So, if you don’t find cardio fun, see what you hate the least.
  • Intensity doesn’t matter: The two main types of cardio are high-intensity and steady-state, and both are broken up into subcategories, but for brevity’s sake, let’s stick to those. The main differences between HIIT and SST are time and duration. One is short, sweet, and intense; the other is longer and less intense. It’s often thought that HIIT is better for fat loss, but it isn’t because both are good for fat loss. So, choosing which method is a matter of how much time you have and your preference.

Putting it All Together For the 2023 New Year Workout Program

Here is a three 3-day-a-week 2023 New Year Workout Program that was built around human movements and the Big three of the squat, deadlift, and bench press. You’ll start at the lower end of the rep range, 8, and work up to 12 reps with the same weight. When you can lift 12 reps for all your sets, go up by 5 to 10 pounds and start the process again.

The program is 3 supersets, and you’ll complete each superset 3 to 4 times, resting a little between exercises and 1-2 minutes between supersets. You’ll have the option of performing one HIIT routine per week at the end of one of your strength training workouts or performing your cardio on a different day. Try to get at least two cardio sessions per week.

Day 1

  • 1A. Squat variation (barbell, dumbbell, or hack)
  • 1B. Hip flexor mobilization (6-8 reps per side)
  • 2A. Pushup variation (8-25 reps)
  • 2B. Chinup or lat pulldown
  • 3A. Dumbbell unilateral row
  • 3B. Unilateral overhead triceps extension

Day 2

  • 1A. Bench press variation (barbell or dumbbell)
  • 1B. Band pull-apart (15-20 reps)
  • 2A. Hip thrust or weighted hip extension
  • 2B. Suitcase Carry (40 yards on each side)
  • 3A. Bilateral seated row
  • 3B. Hamstring curl

Day 3

  • 1A. Deadlift variation (barbell, dumbbell, or trap bar deadlift)
  • 1B. Half-kneeling Pallof press (8-12 reps on each side)
  • 2A. Unilateral landmine press
  • 2B. TRX inverted row
  • 3A.Split squat variations (bodyweight, TRX, or dumbbell)
  • 3B. Dumbbell reverse flye

Cardiovascular Workout Examples

Try to get 8,000 to 10,000 steps per day regardless of whether you strength train or perform cardio that day. If you have trouble getting to 8,000 steps, then work on doing more than you currently do.

  • HIIT example: Using any cardio machine, warm up for three to five minutes and then go as hard as you can for 30 seconds. Go slowly for 90 seconds and repeat the sequence 4 to 6 times. Cool for 5 minutes.
  • Steady state example: 10/10/10 minutes. Spend 10 minutes on the bike, then 10 minutes on the treadmill, keeping the speed around 3 to 3.5 mph. Follow this with 10 minutes on the rowing machine. Any cardio machine will do; choose three different modes.


Hottest Foreign Car Auctions to Bid On in 2023

Filed under: Fitness — Tags: — admin @ 6:15 pm

Vintage vehicles are in their golden age. Aside from the usual Corvettes and Mustangs that have held collectible status for decades, a whole generation of Radwood-era rides is finally getting its due (see the skyrocketing prices on ’90s Hondas, for example), along with other cars and trucks that have suddenly become enthusiast icons. Browsing today’s lineup of online car auctions gives you a front-row seat to all the action—and a fun way to put one of these rides in your garage.

To celebrate the beginning of a new year, we’ve compiled a list of car auctions to bid on in 2023. See something you like? Keep an eye on the growing list of popular auction sites—or better yet, go find one abroad and save a few bucks by handling the customs paperwork and shipping yourself.

For access to exclusive gear videos, celebrity interviews, and more, subscribe on YouTube!


How to Do the Dumbbell Pullover for Upper Body Muscle and Mobility

Maybe you first saw the pullover performed in low-res videos of Golden-era bodybuilders. Now, it’s common to see in commercial fitness centers, rehabilitation facilities, and home gyms. The dumbbell pullover is a classic back and chest exercise that’s experiencing a renaissance — and for good reasons.

A person doing dumbbell pullovers.

Credit: Wavebreakmedia / Shutterstock

This guide covers step-by-step instructions, benefits, unique considerations, variations, and programming for the dumbbell pullover.

Dumbbell Pullover

Dumbbell Pullover Instructional Video

Here’s Dr. Merrick Lincoln instructing the traditional form for the dumbbell pullover. Review the form and hear specific tips before practicing the movement on your own.

How to Do the Dumbbell Pullover Step By Step

The dumbbell pullover is an overhead shoulder extension exercise performed lying on a bench. These step-by-step instructions ensure proper form. 

Step 1 — Set Up a Strong Foundation

Step 1 - A person properly positioned on the gym bench for a pullover.

Credit: Merrick Lincoln, DPT, CSCS / YouTube

For the traditional dumbbell pullover, five stable points of contact are required — The back of your head, shoulder blades, and glutes must remain in contact with the bench, and both feet must be touching the floor. If your bench is too tall, placing your feet on the bench frame or atop weight plates is acceptable. 

Form Tip: Position your head as far up the bench as possible. By placing your head high on the bench, you reduce the likelihood of the bench impeding shoulder range of motion during the pullover.

Step 2 — Retrieve Your Dumbbell and Brace

Step 2 - A person securely grasping a dumbbell with both hands on the gym bench for a pullover.

Credit: Merrick Lincoln, DPT, CSCS / YouTube

The pullover requires a spotter due to movement of the dumbbell over your face and head. A spotter is an individual who assists with the movement and provides physical assistance in the event of form breakdown or failure.

A spotter is also helpful, because they can pass you the dumbbell when you are ready to begin. Otherwise, you will need to transfer the dumbbell from atop your thigh to above your chest, which can be awkward positioning. Whether or not you choose to recruit a spotter, you will cradle the inside top half of the dumbbell in your palms with thumbs and fingers wrapped around the handle.

Form Tip: Grasp the dumbbell securely before bringing it over your face or before giving your spotter the signal to release it. The handle of the dumbbell should sit between the base of your thumbs and body of the hands. With one palm on each side of the dumbbell, create a “closed” grasp by overlapping your thumbs behind the handle and overlapping fingers in front.

Step 3 — Lower to the Bottom Position

Step 3 - A person securely holding a dumbbell in the bottom position of a pullover.

Credit: Merrick Lincoln, DPT, CSCS / YouTube

Begin with dumbbell above your upper chest with your arms vertical and elbows unlocked or slightly bent. Brace your abdominal muscles and maintain the five points of contact with the bench and the floor. Lower the dumbbell toward the floor with control. End the downward movement when you reach the greatest amount of shoulder flexion (stretch) that you can tolerate and control.

Form Tip: Achieve a tolerable stretch across your shoulders at the bottom position. The goal is to move through your full available range of overhead motion, not simply bringing the weight as close to the ground as possible.

Step 4 — Raise to the Top Position

Step 4 - A person securely holding a dumbbell in the top position of a pullover.

Credit: Merrick Lincoln, DPT, CSCS / YouTube

Reverse the movement by pulling the dumbbell through the same arc of movement. The repetition is complete when your upper arms are vertical. Keep your head locked in neutral and your gaze directed at the ceiling — don’t follow the weight with your eyes or head. Allowing your head to tilt into extension (looking overhead) promotes undesirable extension throughout the entire spine.

Form Tip: Maintain the same degree of arm bend throughout each repetition. If your elbows are bending and straightening during the exercise, you’re shifting muscular stress away from your chest and back and onto your triceps.

Step 5 — End the Set Safely

Step 5 - A person securely holding a dumbbell on his thigh at the end of a pullover set.

Credit: Merrick Lincoln, DPT, CSCS / YouTube

If you are using a spotter (recommended), indicate the set is complete. The spotter should take the dumbbell with both hands. (1) If you are training solo (at your own risk), bring the dumbbell to your thigh.

Form Tip: Avoid dropping the dumbbell on your face or chest. Unless you’re itching for a visit to the hospital and likely plastic surgery, safety is priority number one. Ensure the spotter has full control of the dumbbell before you let go. If training alone, maintain a secure grip until the dumbbell rests on your thigh.

Dumbbell Pullover Mistakes to Avoid

The pullover appears simple and sounds self-explanatory — Lie on your back and “pull the dumbbell over,” right? Well, yes, but a plethora of technique faults plague this exercise. Avoiding these errors to improve the effectiveness and safety of the dumbbell pullover.

Excessive Elbow Bend and “Flaring”

During the traditional dumbbell pullover, slight elbow bend allows the lifter to hold the dumbbell while moving their upper arms in the sagittal plane (i.e. parallel to the body’s midline). When lifters allow excessive elbow bend, the difficulty of the pullover is reduced, because the dumbbell is now closer to your shoulders.

More often than not, excessive elbow bend is also associated with “flared,” or outward-pointing, elbows. This position reflects internal rotation of the shoulder and may increase stress on the inside of the elbow (i.e. ulnar collateral ligament stress) during the pullover.

A person in a blue shirt doing a two dumbbell pullover.

Credit: MDV Edwards / Shutterstock

Avoid it: Focus on keeping your elbows pointing forward and/or up during the dumbbell pullover. While elbows should always remain “unlocked,” the pullover should never feel like a triceps extension (“skull crusher”).

Losing Contact with the Bench

Although allowing your hips to rise from the bench may give the impression of increased range of motion, back and hip extension does not equate to shoulder mobility. Unlike a competition-style bench press, arching is counterproductive to the pullover because it ultimately removes tension from latissimus dorsi. (2)

Worse still, excessive arching may allow a heavy dumbbell to destabilize your position, which could result in a “glutes over dumbbell” tumble over the back of the bench.

A person on the bench for a dumbbell pullover, with an arched back.

Credit: Vladimir Sukhachev / Shutterstock

Avoid it: Anchor yourself to the bench by digging your heels into the floor and aggressively bracing your abdominal muscles.

Not Allowing the Dumbbell to “Hang”

A common mistake is to attempt to hold or orient the dumbbell horizontally during the repetition rather than vertically. This requires unnecessary action of the wrist flexors and does little to improve the pullover. At worst, this error could cause premature grip fatigue. 

long-haired person in gym doing flat bench dumbbell pullover.

Credit: Vladimir Sukhachev / Shutterstock

Avoid it: The dumbbell should hang naturally from your hands throughout the pullover. (1)  Although you should maintain a firm grip on the dumbbell, avoid turning or tilting the dumbbell during your set.

How to Progress the Dumbbell Pullover

Lifters new to the pullover should start light when first learning the exercise. Like any exercise, the pullover must be progressed to ensure ongoing benefits. Begin by progressing traditional variables like adding reps and weight. Then, at some point, consider the simple technique modification discussed below.

Increase the Repetition Volume

As an accessory exercise, the pullover is typically programmed in the moderate repetition range (i.e. eight to 12 reps) or a higher repetition range (i.e. 12 to 16 reps). Yes, this is a broad recommendation, but it means you can likely progress for some time by adding a repetition here and there as able. Once you’re able to complete your repetition target, simply add one more rep the following workout. In the short term, progressing volume is likely most appropriate for those focused on hypertrophy. (23)

Increase the Weight

Once you reach the top of your target repetition range and feel you could do more, it is time to increase the weight of your dumbbell. Alternatively, if your primary goal is building strength, progressing weight is likely to be your best short-term strategy. (23) Since small jumps in weight dramatically increase the resistance experienced by the shoulders at the bottom of the pullover, incremental weight progression is best.  

Keep Constant Tension

The dumbbell pullover traditionally begins and ends when the dumbbell is above the chest. (1) However, most of the key muscles of the pullover are offloaded at this point in the range of motion, because the dumbbell is no longer creating demand for the shoulder extensors (i.e. lats, pecs, etc.). A minor tweak to pullover technique increases the difficulty of the early portion of the movement.

A person doing overhead pullovers.

Credit: Wavebreakmedia / Shutterstock

Although “constant tension” is just a catchy misnomer (no muscle experiences constant tension during dynamic exercise), we can intensify the pullover by ending the repetition and beginning the next rep while the shoulder extensors are still working. Rather than pull the dumbbell over your chest, simply reverse the movement when the dumbbell passes above your forehead.

Benefits of the Dumbbell Pullover

The dumbbell pullover trains the shoulders through an arc of overhead motion. Due to its ability to place substantial tension on already lengthened muscles, this simple exercise offers exciting benefits. 

Accelerated Muscular Growth

Mechanical tension, or the end-to-end pulling force experienced by muscle tissue, is generally accepted to be a primary driver of muscle growth (hypertrophy). (3)(4) Muscles experience mechanical tension as a result of muscle contraction and stretch-induced contributions. These forces combine and, when great enough, trigger a cascade of cellular events that ultimately result in muscle growth. (3)

A strong body builder with big muscles holding an EZ bar.

Credit: Lebedev Roman Olegovich / Shutterstock

Training at long muscle lengths increases the stretch-induced contributions to mechanical tension. Growing evidence suggests that training muscles in their lengthened position results in higher rates of muscle hypertrophy. (5)(6)(7) Unfortunately, no long-term hypertrophy study to date has focused on the pullover. However, the architectural properties of latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major, two primary muscles of the pullover, suggest that training at long lengths may be particularly effective. (4)(8

Unlike lat pulldowns, pull-ups, and chin-ups, the resistance torque of the dumbbell pullover is maximized in the overhead position. This is also the position where the average lifter’s lats and pecs are at or near their longest lengths — Altogether, the dumbbell pullover appears to impose ideal demands for “stretch-induced hypertrophy.” 

Improved Flexibility

The dumbbell pullover trains the shoulder extensor muscles at long muscle lengths — in the “stretched” position. In addition to the potential hypertrophy benefits, regular resistance training is known to promote changes in muscle structure and improve flexibility. (9)(10) In the short-term, a single bout of resistance training results in immediate increases in shoulder flexion range of motion. (11) Improved shoulder flexion may be desirable, because even dedicated gym-goers can suffer from limited range of motion. For example, competitive powerlifters — those who focus primarily on the bench press, squat, and deadlift — may demonstrate substantial limitations in shoulder flexion. (12

Person in white lying on gym bench holding a dumbbell overhead.

Credit: BalanceFormCreative / Shutterstock

Although research on the direct effect of the dumbbell pullover on shoulder flexibility is limited, evidence is mounting to support its efficacy. Morton and colleagues compared the effects of five weeks of resistance training or static stretching on flexibility. The resistance training group completed four weekly sets of the dumbbell pullover. (10)

While both groups showed improved shoulder flexibility, the resistance training group showed a trend for superior shoulder extension gains. (10) While training durations greater than five weeks may be necessary to substantiate the effect or show statistically significant findings, it appears the dumbbell pullover is at least equivalent to stretching for shoulder flexibility. 

Improved Overhead Strength and Stability

Compared to other common free weight exercises, the pullover requires your shoulders to work through a greater range of motion and results in significantly greater shoulder joint torques when similarly loaded. (13) Informed by the specificity principle, these features may result in superior strength and stability adaptations, especially through the overhead range of motion. 

Back view of a person holding a dumbbell overhead.

Credit: Max kegfire / Shutterstock

The pullover works the abdominal core along with the shoulders. Combining overhead exercise with core training is recommended for integrating strength into whole-body movements and resisting challenges to shoulder position. (14) Programmed appropriately, the pullover appears to be a strong exercise selection for targeted shoulder strengthening and robustification.

Muscles Worked by Dumbbell Pullover

The primary action resisted by the dumbbell pullover is shoulder extension. (1) Therefore, the exercise trains the muscles that extend the shoulder. Identifying these muscles may appear simple, but few exercises demonstrate the complexities of functional anatomy better than the pullover.

In basic anatomy, we learn muscle actions from “anatomical position” — a position with your arms at your sides. But the dumbbell pullover occurs through overhead range of motion, and since muscle actions may change as joints move away from anatomical position, referencing an anatomy textbook to determine the muscles that extend the shoulder worked during the pullover may be misleading. Moreover, different parts of broad or fan-shaped muscles may be biased throughout certain ranges of motion. In extreme cases, one part of a muscle may have an entirely different action than other parts of the muscle. (15)(16)

Close up view of the back and shoulder muscles.

Credit: YAKOBCHUK VIACHESLAV / Shutterstock

Until a long-term training study consisting exclusively of dumbbell pullovers is conducted, we lean on anatomical modeling and electromyography studies to infer the answer to the question, “What muscles are trained by the pullover?”

Latissimus Dorsi

The latissimus dorsi is a broad, fan-shaped muscle spanning from the low- and mid-back, pelvis, and back of the ribcage up to the arm. (2)(8) Latissimus dorsi is active during the Pullover. (17)(18)(19) The lower fibers, or iliac part, which attaches to the pelvis, are most effective for producing shoulder extension, the movement resisted by the pullover. (8)(16

Pectoralis Major

Positioned prominently on the chest, the pectoralis major is another large, fan-shaped muscle. It’s commonly divided into two parts — the upper clavicular head and the middle to lower sternocostal head. Each part contributes disproportionately to various shoulder actions.

For pec training, movements like bench press, pec flye, and incline press are common. However, the sternocostal head of pectoralis major is active during the pullover. (18)(19) Available data suggest the lower fibers of pectoralis major act to extend the shoulder through the overhead range of motion. (16) Therefore, the sternocostal pectoralis major is considered a primary target of the pullover. 

Posterior Deltoid

The posterior deltoid, or “rear delt,” extends the shoulder. It’s active during the pullover. (19) From a mechanical standpoint, studies suggest the posterior deltoid is a more efficient shoulder extensor during the pullover than the latissimus dorsi or pectoralis major. (15)(16) This is because posterior deltoid demonstrates more “leverage” to produce extension (i.e. a greater extension “moment arm”) throughout the arc of motion trained by the pullover. (15)(16) While the pullover might not be your first pick when it comes to posterior deltoid training, don’t underestimate its potential to build the back of your shoulders.  

Triceps Brachii

The triceps brachii’s primary action is to extend the elbow. In addition, the long head of triceps brachii extends the shoulder. Ultimately, the triceps prevent excessive elbow flexion and assist with the principle movements of the pullover. The muscle controls the movement into shoulder flexion during the downward phase and extends the shoulder during the upward phase. (17)(18)(19)

Serratus Anterior and Abdominals

The serratus anterior is composed of small projections that run diagonally alongside the ribcage. It acts on the shoulder blade. The lower portion of serratus anterior has been shown to be particularly active in the bottom half of the pullover. (20

Close up view of the Serratus Anterior on a shirtless person.

Credit: ShotPrime Studio / Shutterstock

The abdominal muscles are active during the Pullover to resist excessive arching of the trunk, which would otherwise be caused by the dumbbell traveling overhead. (18) It’s fair to categorize the pullover as an anti-extension abdominal exercise. 

How to Program the Dumbbell Pullover

As a single-joint movement, the dumbbell pullover is typically categorized as an accessory exercise. Traditionally, accessory exercises are performed after multi-joint (“compound”) exercises. When programming accessories, avoid extremely heavy loads and one-repetition maximum attempts. Rather, focus on multiple grueling, moderate-to-high repetition sets. 

Moderate Weight, Moderate Repetitions

Those wishing to build muscle and strength with the pullover should consider three to four sets of eight to twelve repetitions. Performed after chin-ups or heavy lat pulldowns, pullovers allow you wring out a bit more hypertrophy work without taxing your grip. 

Low to Moderate Weight, High Repetitions

Pullovers are a greater exercise to begin or end your upper body workout. As an opener at the beginning of your workout, pullovers prime your shoulders for subsequent overhead lifts. As a finisher to end your training session, pullovers provide a dose of “pump work” and a potent stimulus for hypertrophy. Two to four sets of twelve to sixteen repetitions will do the job.

Pullover Variations

Classic exercises tend to accumulate many variants over time, and the pullover is no different. Pullover variations tend to switch out the resistance implement (e.g. dumbbell for a barbell) or the support surface (e.g. bench for a Swiss ball). Four of the most common pullover variations are shown below. 

Cross-Bench Dumbbell Pullover

The cross-bench dumbbell pullover is performed by orienting the body perpendicular to the bench and performing the exercise from a bridge position.

Not only does this setup facilitate activity of the glutes but it also encourages a stable pelvis position and allows the solo lifter to place the dumbbell conveniently on the bench before and after exercise completion. 

EZ-Bar Pullover

Without access to a full run of dumbbells? Having trouble securely holding the dumbbell during the pullover? If so, you may wish to try the EZ-bar pullover.

The EZ-bar allows incremental loading with “change plates.” The semi-pronated inner grips on the bar may be easier to hold for those with stiff forearms, tight shoulders, or smaller hands.

Single-Arm Pullover

Those training for shoulder stability may wish to consider the single-arm dumbbell pullover. By training unilaterally, you’re challenging your shoulder to control movement in an additional plane.

Owing to the natural tradeoff between stability and maximum load, expect to drop the weight 60 to 80% for the single-arm dumbbell pullover.

Cable Pullover

Cable pullovers are performed with a pulley or cable column set to a low position, while holding a triceps rope, strap, or short bar. The cable pullover changes the line of the resistance. Instead of encountering maximum resistance torque at or near the bottom position as in the dumbbell pullover, the shoulders experience maximum resistance torque earlier in the movement during cable pullovers.

The cable resistance also increases the productive range of motion of the exercise. Rather than ending the repetition with vertical arms, continue “pulling over” until the cable gently grazes your forehead. 


Is the dumbbell pullover a back exercise or a chest exercise?

It’s both. The pullover also hits muscles in the shoulders, arms, and trunk. (16)(17)(18)(19)(20)
If you’re using a training split, you will need to decide how to categorize the pullover. Some like to include it in “chest day,” because Pullovers hit the lower portion of pectoralis major. (16) Others put pullovers on “back day,” as it can be used to train latissimus dorsi before or after grip-intensive exercise such as rows, lat pulldowns, or pull-ups. The good news? There is no wrong answer. 

Can I just do straight-arm pushdowns instead?

The straight-arm pushdown, also called “stiff-arm pulldown” or “lat prayer,” is a shoulder extension exercise performed standing with a cable machine or high pulley. This exercise may be appealing for several reasons. There’s is no need to occupy a bench, the upright position allows you to monitor your form (and your “pump”) in the mirror, and changing weights is easier on the cable stack. But for lifters seeking hypertrophy, the crux of the question is not convenience or even the “feel” of the exercise. It comes down to inherent differences between exercise biomechanics. 
The pullover and pulldown are different exercises, each with its own unique resistance profile and muscular activity pattern. (18) Anecdotally, lifters tend to “feel” their lats more during pulldowns than pullovers. The reverse seems to be true for “feeling” pectoralis major. Indeed, the pulldown shows greater muscle activity in the latissimus dorsi than the pullover, and the pullover shows greater muscle activity in all parts of pectoralis major than the pulldown. (18
Does this mean the pullover is better for back and the pulldown is better for chest? Absolutely not. This misconception stems from a common misunderstanding of exercise electromyography (EMG) studies. Higher EMG does not equal a “better exercise,” because we cannot predict long term training outcomes from EMG studies alone. (24)(25) Moreover, EMG is not a valid indicator of mechanical tension, a key driver of muscular adaptations. (24)(3)
In short, many features must be considered when determining exercise selection. These include, but are not limited to training goals, personal preferences, and how the exercise fits into the program as a whole. 

How can hit my lats or pecs harder in the pullover?

Presently, there is no definitive pullover technique modification to bias one agonist muscle over another. Although some have claimed flaring the elbows during the pullover favors latissimus dorsi and keeping elbows straight favors pectoralis major, either technique compromises the exercise.
Flaring the elbows outward results in shoulder internal rotation, which takes tension off latissimus dorsi. (26) — Not desirable if you wish to take advantage of increased tension in the muscle, stretch-mediated hypertrophy, and flexibility benefits of the exercise. (4)(8)(9)
Keeping your elbows completely straight seems to make it easier to “feel” or contract your pecs at the top of the repetition, but it also requires extreme shoulder abduction at the bottom of the repetition (think of your biceps touching your earlobes). I do not recommend either option. 

The Perplexing Pullover

The pullover exercise is a conundrum. It’s performed in hardcore bodybuilding gyms and rehabilitation clinics, alike. It’s an exercise for building muscle and enhancing range of motion. It’s a back exercise and a chest exercise. It’s loved and hated. 

Despite its complexities, the dumbbell pullover has stood the test of time. Maybe now is the time to focus on pullovers in your training program? 


  1. Leavy, C. M. (2004). Dumbbell pullover. Strength & Conditioning Journal26(2), 48-49.
  2. Bogduk, N., Johnson, G., & Spalding, D. (1998). The morphology and biomechanics of latissimus dorsi. Clinical Biomechanics13(6), 377-385.
  3. Wackerhage, H., et al. (2019). Stimuli and sensors that initiate skeletal muscle hypertrophy following resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 126(1), 30-43.
  4. Ottinger, C. R., et al. (2022). Muscle hypertrophy response to range of motion in strength training: a novel approach to understanding the findings. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 10-1519.
  5. Maeo, S., et al. (2021). Greater hamstrings muscle hypertrophy but similar damage protection after training at long versus short muscle lengths. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise53(4), 825.
  6. Maeo, S., et al. (2022). Triceps brachii hypertrophy is substantially greater after elbow extension training performed in the overhead versus neutral arm position. European Journal of Sport Science, 1-11.
  7. Pedrosa, G. F., et al. (2021). Partial range of motion training elicits favorable improvements in muscular adaptations when carried out at long muscle lengths. European Journal of Sport Science, 1-11.
  8. Gerling, M. E., & Brown, S. H. (2013). Architectural analysis and predicted functional capability of the human latissimus dorsi muscle. Journal of Anatomy223(2), 112-122.
  9. McMahon, G. E., et al. (2014). Impact of range of motion during ecologically valid resistance training protocols on muscle size, subcutaneous fat, and strength. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research28(1), 245-255.
  10. Morton, S. K., et al. (2011). Resistance training vs. static stretching: effects on flexibility and strength. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research25(12), 3391-3398.
  11. Leite, T. B., et al. (2017). Effects of different number of sets of resistance training on flexibility. International Journal of Exercise Science10(3), 354.
  12. Gadomski, S. J., Ratamess, N. A., & Cutrufello, P. T. (2018). Range of motion adaptations in powerlifters. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research32(11), 3020-3028.
  13. Schütz, P., et al. (2022). Chest exercises: movement and loading of shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. Sports10(2), 19.
  14. Brumitt, J., & Dale, R. B. (2009). Integrating shoulder and core exercises when rehabilitating athletes performing overhead activities. North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy: NAJSPT4(3), 132-138.
  15. Hoffmann, M., et al. (2022). Moment arms of the deltoid, infraspinatus and teres minor muscles for movements with high range of motion: A cadaveric study. Clinical Biomechanics, 105685.
  16. Ackland, D. C., Pak, P., Richardson, M., & Pandy, M. G. (2008). Moment arms of the muscles crossing the anatomical shoulder. Journal of Anatomy213(4), 383-390.
  17. Borges, E., et al. (2018). Resistance training acute session: Pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi and triceps brachii electromyographic activity. Journal of Physical Education and Sport18(2), 648-653.
  18. Muyor, J. M., López-Miñarro, P. A., & Alacid, F. (2022). Comparison of electromyographic activity during barbell pullover and straight arm pulldown exercises. Applied Sciences12(21), 11138.
  19. Campos, Y. D. A. C., & Silva, S. F. D. (2014). Comparison of electromyographic activity during the bench press and barbell pullover exercises. Motriz: Revista de Educação Física20, 200-205.
  20. Büll, M. L., et al. (2001). Electromyographic validation of the trapezius and serratus anterior muscles in pull-over exercises. Brazilian Journal of Morphological Sciences18(1), 69-73.
  21. Newmire, D. E., & Willoughby, D. S. (2020). Partial Range of Motion Resistance Training: A Feasible Bodybuilding Training Regiment for Local or Regional Muscle Hypertrophy?. Strength & Conditioning Journal42(5), 87-93.
  22. dos Santos Albarello, J. C., et al. (2022). Non-uniform excitation of pectoralis major induced by changes in bench press inclination leads to uneven variations in the cross-sectional area measured by panoramic ultrasonography. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology67, 102722.
  23. Plotkin, D., et al. (2022). Progressive overload without progressing load? The effects of load or repetition progression on muscular adaptations. PeerJ10, e14142.
  24. Vigotsky, A. D., et al. (2018). Interpreting signal amplitudes in surface electromyography studies in sport and rehabilitation sciences. Frontiers in Physiology, 985.
  25. Vigotsky, A. D., et al. (2022). Longing for a longitudinal proxy: acutely measured surface EMG amplitude is not a validated predictor of muscle hypertrophy. Sports Medicine52(2), 193-199.
  26. Hik, F., & Ackland, D. C. (2019). The moment arms of the muscles spanning the glenohumeral joint: a systematic review. Journal of Anatomy234(1), 1-15.

Featured Image: Wavebreakmedia / Shutterstock


15 Deadlift Variations for Muscle, Strength, and More

Filed under: Fitness,Training — Tags: , , , , , — admin @ 9:49 am

The deadlift is considered by many lifters to be the king of exercises. It could be considered the ultimate display of full-body strength, and it’s likely an exercise that recruits the most muscles in the human body. Deadlifts are also a very natural and instinctive movement — useful in everyday life as well as being transferable to many sports. It is the quintessential “hinge” exercise, one of the five basic human movement patterns popularized by coaches in recent years, along with “squat,” “push,”, “pull,” and “carry.”

Man in gym performing barbell exercise

Credit: Qilin’s prance Filmmaker / Shutterstock

As such, this primordial lift is so versatile, it can be used for a multitude of goals — strength, muscle growth, speed and power, grip strength, core stability, and more — as long as you can perform it properly. But human ingenuity, and necessity, also helped to create countless variations, each focusing more on one or more of these aspects.

Whether you want to target a precise muscle group, improve your deadlift technique, a specific weak point, or improve your athletic abilities, there’s a variation for you. The traditional deadlift will build total body size and strength, but we can take things even further. Here’s a list of 15 deadlift variations to include in your training regimen and tailor your sessions to your specific needs.

Best Deadlift Variations

Deficit Deadlift

Standing on a plate or elevated platform will make the lift more difficult. The increased range of motion requires you to reach and crouch down further, placing you in a less-than-optimal position.

That’s usually not something you want to do on purpose, but the poor leverage improves your strength at the start of the lift, making it useful for lifters who are “weak off the floor,” or have trouble with the initial phase of the deadlift.

When to Do It

This variation is often used by lifters interested in strength sports (specifically powerlifting or strongman/strongwoman) or those looking for maximal deadlift strength. It is a perfect fix if you fail at the start of the lift, at floor-level or just above it. Being elevated means that the range of motion is increased and you’ll have to use more knee flexion, which will increase your quadriceps strength and power off the floor.

Deficit deadlifts are also a great teaching tool if you have trouble getting deadlift technique right, as it forces you to use less weight and focus on perfect form. Finally, you can also use it as a variation to increase quadriceps recruitment, either for strength or size.

How to Do It

Stand securely on a small platform or a weight plate. Grab a barbell and perform a regular deadlift. Because your feet are elevated, your hips will have to get lower in the starting position because the bar will be further down. Do not make the mistake of turning it into a stiff-leg deadlift — be sure to bend your knees and use your quads.

Don’t get crazy with an extremely high deficit or it won’t have much transfer to your basic deadlift. Elevating yourself just a few inches will be right for most lifters When in doubt, start with the lowest height and increase gradually.

Rack Pull

Working the opposite spectrum from the deficit deadlift, the rack pull provides a reduced range of motion. Sometimes called a partial deadlift, the rack pull starts with the bar in a power rack and skips the starting phase near the floor.

By starting with the barbell in a higher position, you can use more weight and stimulate more growth. You can also focus on the “end range” (lockout portion) of the movement if locking out deadlifts is your specific weakness.

When to Do It

The rack pull is ideal for emphasizing your glutes and back. It is also a relatively less technical lift because of the shortened range of motion. Rack pulls are suitable for many people because the movement requires less mobility and can put less strain on your lower back because you can begin in a more stable position.

Use this version to focus on hypertrophy (muscle growth), as a powerlifting tool to improve your lockout strength, or in lieu of the conventional deadlift if it’s not suited to your body type or injury history.

How to Do It

Set the safety pins in a rack so the barbell starts at your mid-shins, or higher if needed. Grab the barbell, flex your abs as hard as you can and perform the upper portion of a deadlift — pull your shoulders back and drive your hips forward.

Remember that overconfidence is a slow and insidious way to kill your results, so don’t set the barbell too high just to lift more weight. The higher the bar, the more weight lifted, but the less carryover to the actual movement. A shorter range of motion may also be less effective for growth, so choose an appropriate height.

Trap Bar Deadlift

With this variation, we’re using a trap bar instead of a straight barbell. This hexagon- or diamond-shaped specialty bar is now a common occurrence in many gyms around the world, and for good reason: this is an amazing lift that delivers size and strength with less joint strain.

This relatively easy to learn exercise is a hybrid between a squat and a standard deadlift because of the adjusted body position. This combination of benefits makes it excellent for developing size and strength.

When to Do It

If you’re a beginner who can’t make the regular deadlift work for you, give this variation a go. It will help you master overall positioning, hip hinging, and core bracing, while increasing total-body size and strength.

It is also a favorite for developing lower body strength and athleticism. Because you can keep your torso more upright, and put less strain on your lower back, it can be less risky than the conventional deadlift. It’s a great fit for people who only use weightlifting to get better at their sport. If you’re playing football, rugby, hockey, or combat sports, the trap bar deadlift can become your primary lower-body builder. 

How to Do It

Step into the trap bar and grab it by the handles. Brace your whole body, push through your legs and pull with your back to lift the weight up. You can use either the low or high handles if you flip the trap bar. Using the high handles is the basic and most common configuration which is recommended for most, and especially taller lifters whose leverages make barbell deadlifts too uncomfortable.

Using the low handles can be great to stimulate more quadriceps growth by forcing knee flexion, similar to performing a deficit deadlift. You can also perform the trap bar deadlift more like a squat, keeping your hips low and driving as much as you can through your legs to trigger quadriceps growth. This technique used by some bodybuilders so focus on leg growth more than strength and power.

Sumo Deadlift

This “controversial” lift has gotten a bad rap and is even seen as cheating by some lifters, because you can greatly reduce the range of motion compared to a conventional (close-stance) deadlift.

But the sumo deadlift also has a number of unique benefits: It puts less pressure on the lower back, it’s better suited to some morphologies (body types with varying limb lengths), and it will improve size and strength in the quadriceps, glutes, and adductors.

When to Do It

For some people, the sumo deadlift simply feels more natural. If that’s the case, then make it your default deadlift of choice. If you’re a competitive powerlifter and are stronger with this technique, do not hesitate to make it your competition lift. Some coaches argue that a good lifter should be efficient with both styles, for they both have their strengths and weaknesses and teach you different key positions and techniques. 

Studies have shown that the sumo deadlift puts less stress on your spine than a conventional deadlift, so if you’re a veteran lifter with an achy back, consider this lift as your deadlift of choice. (1) You can also simply rotate the sumo deadlift with the conventional deadlift to periodically rest your spine, for instance during a deload.

How to Do It

Take a stance that it is wider than shoulder-width. The specific foot position will depend upon your morphology, mobility, and preferences. Let your arms hang straight down to grab the barbell near the center of the bar, and sink your hips down. Your hips should be as close to in-line with the barbell as possible, rather than remaining in a high position.

Take a deep breath and brace your core. Contract your lats while keeping your upper body close to vertical. Push through the ground with your feet. Imagine trying to split the ground in half with your feet as you drive up. Pull the weight until your hips are locked out.

Stiff-Leg Deadlift

This strength-focused variation is all about your lower back. By extending your legs and keeping them almost straight in the starting position, you change your body’s leverage and muscle recruitment.

The stiff-leg position decreases involvement from your quadriceps and make it a pure posterior chain exercise — emphasizing your spinal erectors (lower back) and hamstrings.

When to Do It

This variation is mostly done by strength enthusiasts to strengthen their posterior chain, especially their lower back. (2) Compared to the traditional deadlift, the stiff-leg deadlift is more difficult because fewer muscles are involved in moving the weight, but that doesn’t prevent it from being used as a main exercise. Use it if your posterior chain is a weak point, strength-wise, or if you want to build a more muscular set of spinal erectors.

How to Do It

Set yourself like you would for a conventional deadlift — stand in front of a bar with your feet roughly hip-width, grabbing the barbell slightly outside your legs — but keep your hips higher and your legs only slightly bent. Your torso should be roughly parallel to the ground. The farther the barbell is from your shins, the more strain will be put on your lower back and core. As long as you’re conservative with the weight, this adjustment can be used deliberately to focus even more on these muscles. 

Create tension in your whole body and hinge at your hips. This is a pure hip hinge exercise with little-to-no leg drive. Extend your body completely to stand up and squeeze your glutes at the top. Reverse the motion with control until the barbell is back on the ground.

Romanian Deadlift

The Romanian deadlift, or RDL, is all about triggering hypertrophy by providing a great stretch, constant muscular tension, and a long time under tension — all drivers for muscle growth. (3)

It was popularized by Romanian Olympic weightlifter Nicu Vlad when he arrived in the United States. Vlad supposedly complemented his Olympic lifting with this variation instead of rounded-back stiff-leg deadlifts which were common at the time.

When to Use It

This classic exercise is one of the most efficient exercises for developing your hamstrings and glutes. Use it for moderate repetitions (eight to 12 per set) as your posterior chain exercise of choice during a bodybuilding-focused session or as an assistance exercise in your strength programming for sets of five to eight repetitions per set. Beginner lifters and elite athletes alike can rotate this lift into their training plan.

How to Do It

The Romanian deadlift is often confused with the stiff-leg deadlift, but technique for each movement is slightly different. The RDL starts from the top position, and not with the bar on the floor like the stiff-leg deadlift. Grab the barbell from a power rack, take a step backwards, and bend at the hips while keeping your back flat and your knees barely bent. Think about pushing your hips backward as far as you can. 

Descend until you cannot push your hips back anymore, or until you feel your back starting to round, and reverse the motion by flexing your glutes and driving your hips forward. You should feel a deep stretch in your hamstrings. Your mobility will determine how low you can go — don’t necessarily try to reach the bar to the ground. Keep in mind, when done consistently the Romanian deadlift may improve your flexibility and mobility. Consider using a pair of lifting straps to ensure your grip doesn’t fail or distract you from feeling your leg muscles working.

Single-Leg Deadlift

The single-leg deadlift requires some coordination, but it can challenge your core, balance, glutes, and hamstrings like no other. It may seem simple in appearance: “deadlift while standing on only one leg.” But sometimes, the simplest things are the best.

The unilateral (single-leg) exercise focuses on more core stability while also shifting the work load to each individual leg. This single-sided focus can help to correct potential strength and size imbalances. (4)

When to Do It

This exercise can improve mobility, coordination, and balance, while also training your hamstrings, glutes, and lower back. Your core also development, especially the obliques through anti-rotation. 

Whether you’re an athlete, a bodybuilder, a strength athlete, or simply someone who wants to be more functional, you can find a place for this exercise in your training. It’s also a great warm-up exercise that will lubricate your joints, teach correct mechanics, and prime your body for the heavier lifts.

How to Do It

Hold a barbell, a pair of kettlebells, or a pair of dumbbells and extend one leg behind you so that only the toes of that foot are touching the ground. Keep your front leg slightly bent and shift the majority of your body weight onto your front leg. Pitch your torso forward and lift your extended leg behind you until your body forms a T-shape. Reverse the motion by squeezing your hamstrings and glutes. Keep the weights relatively light, the repetitions moderate, and your form impeccable. Moving at a slightly slower pace can help to keep your technique and balance in order.

Snatch-Grip Deadlift

No, the snatch-grip deadlift is not only reserved for Olympic lifters. It does initially come from the world of weightlifting, and the snatch exercise itself, but it’s essentially a deadlift performed with a very wide grip.

This posterior chain exercise will recruit your whole back, with emphasis on your upper back muscles. It can also improve your drive off the floor because it requires you to start in a lower position.

When to Do It

If you’re an Olympic weightlifter, it’s a no-brainer as you can overload the snatch movement pattern, target the related muscles, and improve the starting position. If you’re a powerlifter who’s weak off the floor in the conventional deadlift, rotate the snatch-grip deadlift into your training to focus on your weak point. And if you’re only interested in aesthetics, the snatch-grip will overload your lats and upper back even more than the traditional deadlift.

How to Do It

Use a slightly wider stance than a conventional deadlift, lower your hips a bit more, and grab the barbell with a wide grip. Exactly how wide will depend upon what you want to achieve. If you’re a weightlifter, use the same grip as your normal snatch — which can be collar to collar for taller lifters. If you’re a powerlifter, you should employ a grip slightly outside your shoulder-width to have maximal carryover to your conventional pull. Consider using lifter straps for this variation, as your grip will be extremely challenged and you cannot use a mixed grip (one overhand grip and one underhand grip).

The wider your grip, the lower your hips will have to be to achieve a strong starting position. This means more work for your glutes, quads, and lats. Brace your core and drive through your legs while keeping a flat spine until you’re standing tall. Descend with control to the ground.

Zercher Deadlift

This one’s for the most unconventional lifters. Ed Zercher was a strongman who would perform lifts with the barbell in the crooks of his elbows. It led to the Zercher squat, Zercher carry, Zercher deadlift, Zercher good morning, and so on.

Holding a barbell in this awkward style will tremendously increase the stress on your core, upper back, and biceps, leading to more growth and strength. 

When to Do It

Most people in the gym seeing you perform this unique lift may think you’re a little crazy or misinformed, but the Zercher deadlift will challenge your core like almost no other movement. It is performed with a slightly rounded back, and as such, should be reserved for experienced lifters who’ve mastered bracing and core stability. It’s also a great exercise for competitive strongmen and strongwomen to train for the Atlas stone event, as it replicates the motion. If you want to build your back and core, try the Zercher deadlift.

How to Do It

Use a wider-than-usual stance to accommodate your arms, and squat deep to place the barbell in the crook of your elbows. Flex your abs as much as you can and lift the bar off the ground. If it’s too painful for your elbows, use a bar pad or try to use a thicker axle bar. The Zercher deadlift requires a lot of mobility, and might prove too stressful for your lower back. In that case, elevate the bar in a rack or on blocks and perform a partial motion.

Chain Deadlift

This powerlifting favorite is not available for most people, but if you can have access to chains, adding them to your standard deadlift will spice up your training and unlock new gains.

Using this accommodating resistance in conjunction with regular weights will change the curve of resistance: the weight will be lighter at the bottom, and heavier at the top. This can provide new training paradigms. This can also be performed for a similar effect using resistance bands on each side of the bar.

When to Do It

Because the weight is heavier at the top, chain deadlifts are perfect if you want to emphasize this portion of the lift and target the specific muscles responsible for the top-end motion, namely your back and glutes.

If the top-end is already your forte, you can also use the chain deadlift for overload, using a heavier weight than you could normally lift, which can unlock new growth. (5) It’s also invaluable if you want to do speed work — a specialized kind of strength training moving light-to-moderate weights as fast as you can. Bands and chains allow you to accelerate and be even more powerful through the phenomenon of compensatory acceleration, making you even stronger. (6)

How to Do It

Attach chains to the barbell so that they hang from it as the bar elevates, but not so high as they completely come off the floor. Some links should remain on the floor for to keep the bar balanced and stable.

A good weight is to aim for around 25% of your one-rep maximum in chains, and at least as much regular weight in plates. For example, if your max deadlift is 405 pounds, use around 100 pounds of chains. Then, perform a normal deadlift.

Sweeping Deadlift

If you have trouble with keeping your upper body tight and braced, coach Christian Thibaudeau popularized the sweeping deadlift. It’s the perfect fix for learning how to engage your lats and improve your posture during the deadlift.

Fighting the band’s pull will force you to constantly engage your lats and maintain total-body tension during a deadlift.

When to Do It

The deadlift can be hard to master, as it is a total body lift that requires lots of coordination and technique. A common flaw is having the barbell “moving away” from you during the ascent. This results in a strength leak and puts more stress on the lower back. To fix this, integrate the sweeping deadlift, either as a warm-up movement or a supplemental exercise. It will teach you to engage your lats and keep the bar close to your body at all times, which is the optimal pulling position.

How to Do It

Loop one end of a band around the center of your barbell and the other end to a sturdy object like a rack. Step in front of the barbell, facing the rack, so that the band is pulling the barbell away from you. Perform controlled deadlift repetitions while keeping tension in your lats and on the band. Keep the bar close to you at all times and don’t allow it to drift forward.

Kettlebell Deadlift

This beginner-friendly variation is a great introduction to the hip hinge pattern, but can also serve as an effective glute and hamstring builder. The kettlebell deadlift allow you to really push yourself without risking form breakdown or causing too much fatigue.

The kettlebell deadlift is a simple and efficient way to drill the deadlift movement. You can reinforce general technique while building strength and targeting all of the involved muscles, from your legs to your upper body and grip.

When to Do It

If you’re new to the gym, the kettlebell deadlift is the perfect tool to teach you proper hip hinge mechanics. Because the weight is closer to your centerline and not in front of you like a barbell, it is an easier and more natural-feeling exercise. You can start with lighter weight, which is great for inexperienced lifters. But if you have access to heavy kettlebells, it can also become a great lower body exercise for more advanced lifters, as it will put less strain on your back than a barbell.

How to Do It

Depending on the size of the kettlebell and your mobility, you might want to elevate it for a higher starting position. Step in front of the kettlebell and assume a shoulder-width stance. Hinge forward and grab the kettlebell. Brace your core, flex your lats by squeezing an imaginary ball under your armpits, and spread the floor apart with your feet. Drive your hips forward to full extension and exhale. Lower the weight with control to the ground.

If you want to make the exercise a bit harder, drive as hard as you can and squeeze your glutes at the top, so the weight rises up in a slight arc, similar to the beginning of a kettlebell swing.

Landmine Deadlift

The landmine is a little piece of equipment designed to hold one end of a barbell and allow for a myriad of exercises using it as a fixed anchor. Among these exercises, we can find the deadlift.

The landmine variation of the deadlift is simpler and safer than a barbell, making it a perfect variation for beginners. The bar follows a somewhat fixed path with the landmine, so this movement necessitates less coordination and technique than a barbell

When to Do It

The landmine deadlift is a great way to learn the hip hinge pattern and to develop the confidence for lifting heavier weights. It also puts less strain and shear forces on the spine because you can keep your upper body more upright  — a perfect variation for battered-up lifters dealing with aches and pains.

Because the exercise doesn’t require as much coordination and balance as a barbell deadlift, you can focus more on the desired muscles and improve mind-muscle connection, which makes it a perfect variation to improve size.

How to Do It

Place a barbell in a landmine, and load plates on the free end. Take a shoulder-width stance and grab the collar. Keep your back flat, your chest puffed, and your abs flexed. Drive your hips forward until you’re standing tall. If you’re more interested in hypertrophy, consider performing a landmine Romanian deadlift and stop the descent before the weight reaches the ground, to maximize time under tension.

Suitcase Deadlift

Who knew holding luggage could host so much benefits? This deadlift variation mimics lifting a heavy suitcase off the ground and delivers massive core and grip strength.

Using a barbell will challenge your grip to the extreme, as you’ll have to keep the long bar level and engage some rarely used grip and forearm muscles.

When to Do It

What’s interesting with this exercise is that it provides unilateral benefits for your upper body. It can improve core and bracing strength, most notably in your obliques via anti-lateral flexion, but also your upper back and lat posture and strength. If you feel you lack core strength or have upper-back imbalances, include this variation as supplemental exercise or as your core movement of choice.

How to Do It

Stand next to a heavy dumbbell or a barbell. Grab it and, if using a barbell, take extra care to hold it right in the middle for stability. Brace your whole body and perform a standard deadlift. It may seem simple, but you can’t just rip it off the floor if you want to reap the benefits. Remain level and don’t allow your body to bend toward one side or the other. This will demand a great deal of bracing and core strength. Do not rush your reps, and do not use heavier weight until you’re sure you can maintain perfect posture.

Using a barbell will also require lots of grip and wrist stability to balance the barbell. If you tend to fail deadlifts because of a weak grip, consider this variation. Having stronger grip and forearms will also improve elbow and shoulder health at the same time.

Reeves Deadlift

Also called a “pinch-grip deadlift,” this variation gets its name from bodybuilder and actor Steve Reeves. He was known to deadlift while holding a barbell by the plates, to exacerbate upper back and forearm strength.

If you’re up for an unconventional yet highly effective lift, try it. Think of the Reeves deadlift as a more intense variation of the snatch-grip deadlift, with a major grip strength challenge added to the mix.

When to Do It

This tough exercise is even more difficult than the snatch-grip deadlift, and amplifies its benefits and weaknesses. Forget all hope of lifting really heavy with this one. But if you want to vastly improve your grip and forearm strength, as well as your lats, rhomboids, and middle traps, this is the right choice.

How to Do It

Load a barbell and grab it by the holes in the plates, which would be a very wide grip. If the weight plates don’t have cutout holes, grab the lip of the plate. If you want to increase the load, use one 45-pound plate to grip, followed by smaller plates afterwards.

Pack your scapulas (shoulder blades) back and down and hold a neutral posture for the whole lift. If you don’t have extra-long arms, consider using a trap bar as they are shorter than a standard barbell. 

Muscles Worked by the Deadlift

This total-body lift is one of the few movements that recruits most of the muscles throughout your body. Even though these variations emphasize some muscles more than others, all of the following muscles will actively participate in any deadlift exercise.


Your quadriceps, hamstrings, and even your calves will be recruited during the deadlift. The hamstrings are a series of posterior muscles that flex or bend your knees. They also help extend the hips in conjunction with the glutes. In the deadlift, your hamstrings assist the glutes in driving the weight up from the bottom position by extending the hips.

long-haired person in gym doing deadlift

Credit: YAKOBCHUK VIACHESLAV / Shutterstock

The quadriceps are among the biggest and strongest muscles in the body. This group of four muscles goes from the tibia on top of the knee and ends up on the top of the femur (thigh bone) or the hip. They extend your knee, and as such, the more flexed your knees will be during any variation, the more your quadriceps will be trained. The calves, the muscles on the back of the lower leg, also assist the upper legs by extending the ankles.


Like any hip hinge, the glutes will be heavily involved in the deadlift. The gluteus maximus, medius, and minimus are a group of three large muscles that govern hip movement. In the deadlift, their main role is to extend the hips — bringing the body from a bent-over position to an upright posture.


Even though you’re not pulling with your upper body or arms, several back muscles contribute to the deadlift. The latissimus dorsi (lats), the biggest back muscle, are engaged to provide spinal stability and maintain a strong arm position. Your trapezius, rhomboids, and rear deltoids across your upper back all work in conjunction to protect your shoulder joints and guide the barbell along its path. The wider your grip will be, the more these muscles will contribute to the exercise.

Erector Spinae

Sometimes called the spinal erectors, this is considered the “lower back,” when it’s actually a length of muscle that goes from the pelvis up to the base of the skull. This postural muscle helps keep the spine in place and also contributes to hip extension. It will work primarily to stabilize your upper body in the deadlift.

If your back rounds over during the deadlift, you put the erector spinae into a more active role and increase the risk of injury. You don’t want to use them as the prime mover during a deadlift.


Your abdominals work together with the erector spinae to form your “core” and provide a stable upper body. The abs control torso rotation and flexion (bending forward), as well as resisting extension (leaning backward). During the deadlift, your abs are highly active to maintain a neutral spine position.


Your forearm muscles (wrist flexors and wrist extensors) are responsible for your grip strength, which is a big part of the deadlift. Some of these variations will challenge it even more, through thick handles or a wider grip.

Deadlift Form Tips

The deadlift can seem like a daunting task, but as long as you’re following these cues, you can get bigger and stronger, safely and efficiently. A very common flaw is to try to “squat” the deadlift, meaning lifting with your hips very low as if you were performing a squat. This will result in an inefficient bar path and strength leakage, making the exercise less effective.

You have to move around the bar, not the other way around. If you deadlift with low hips, you will either push the barbell away from you to avoid your knees or you’ll shoot your hips up first and perform a pure hip hinge afterwards.

person in gym bending forward with barbell in hands

Credit: YAKOBCHUK VIACHESLAV / Shutterstock

If you want to be optimal and efficient, remember that the starting position of the deadlift is not the same as the squat. Your hips have to be higher, your knees only slightly bent, and your shoulders directly over or slightly in front of the bar. If your hips and your shoulders raise at the same time, and the bar follows a straight path, then you know you’re doing right.

Another dreadful and potentially dangerous form issue is to round the back. Experienced lifters can sometimes use this technique in very specific and deliberate contexts, but in general, you should deadlift with a stiff and neutral back if you want to minimize the risk of injuries.

To help you engage your lats and keep a flat back, think about bending the bar like a horseshoe or think of squeezing imaginary balls under your armpits. Keep your chest puffed and your shoulder blades packed. Hold a big breath of air in your belly and brace your core as much as you can during the lift.

Deadlift Yourself Up

Now you have no excuses not to fit some form of this quintessential exercise into your training plan. The deadlift is a fundamental movement that should be done by every lifter. Whether you’re a beginner, a gym veteran, an athlete, or someone that just wants to pack on some more muscle, now you can find a variation that will benefit your goals and situation. 


  1. Cholewicki J, McGill SM, Norman RW. Lumbar spine loads during the lifting of extremely heavy weights. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991 Oct;23(10):1179-86. PMID: 1758295.
  2. Martín-Fuentes I, Oliva-Lozano JM, Muyor JM. Electromyographic activity in deadlift exercise and its variants. A systematic review. PLoS One. 2020 Feb 27;15(2):e0229507. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0229507. PMID: 32107499; PMCID: PMC7046193.
  3. Krzysztofik M, Wilk M, Wojdała G, Gołaś A. Maximizing Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review of Advanced Resistance Training Techniques and Methods. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Dec 4;16(24):4897. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16244897. PMID: 31817252; PMCID: PMC6950543.
  4. Manca A, Dragone D, Dvir Z, Deriu F. Cross-education of muscular strength following unilateral resistance training: a meta-analysis. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017 Nov;117(11):2335-2354. doi: 10.1007/s00421-017-3720-z. Epub 2017 Sep 21. PMID: 28936703.
  5. Peterson MD, Pistilli E, Haff GG, Hoffman EP, Gordon PM. Progression of volume load and muscular adaptation during resistance exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011 Jun;111(6):1063-71. doi: 10.1007/s00421-010-1735-9. Epub 2010 Nov 27. PMID: 21113614; PMCID: PMC4215195.
  6. Swinton PA, Stewart AD, Keogh JW, Agouris I, Lloyd R. Kinematic and kinetic analysis of maximal velocity deadlifts performed with and without the inclusion of chain resistance. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Nov;25(11):3163-74. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318212e389. PMID: 21993040.

Featured Image: BAZA Production


Older Posts »

Powered by WordPress